To use parameter IDs, you need to “set” (store) values in the global memory area and then “get” (retrieve) values from this parameter ID memory area. In the case of an online program, you will “set” values from screen fields and you will “get” these values for screen fields. You can perform this “set/get” function two ways: § Use the ABAP statements “SET PARAMETER ID” and “GET PARAMETER ID”. Use the field attributes “SPA” and “GPA”. Remember that parameter IDs can only be used with ABAP Dictionary fields because parameter IDs are linked to data elements. The appropriate data elements must have a parameter IDs for this “set/get” function to work.
27. What are Text Elements?
Text elements makes program easier to maintain program texts in different languages. These are used for maintaining list headers, selectiontexts in programs
28. What is an Interactive Report?
An Interactive report allows the user to participate in retrieving and present data at each level. While classical report doesn't have access to interact
29. What are Layout set Elements?
Layout set elements are
2. Paragraph formats
3. Character formats
6. Page windows
30. Distinguish between setscreen and call screen?
In the case of setscreen the entire processing of the current screen takes place and then the system branches out to next screen. if u want to branch out to the next screen without processing the current screen then LEAVE SCREEN should be used along with SET SCREEN.
CALL SCREEN is usually used for pop up screens.
31. What is ABAP Memory and SAP Memory?
SAP memory is a memory area to which all main sessions within a SAPgui have access. You can use SAP memory either to pass data from one program to another within a session, or to pass data from one session to another. Application programs that use SAP memory must do so using SPA/GPA parameters .
ABAP memory is a memory area that all ABAP programs within the same internal session can access using the EXPORT and IMPORT statements. Data within this area remains intact during a whole sequence of program calls. To pass data to a program which you are calling, the data needs to be placed in ABAP memory before the call is made. The internal session of the called program then replaces that of the calling program. The program called can then read from the ABAP memory.
1. SAP memory is for cross-transaction Applications and ABAP/4 memory is transaction-specific.
2. The SAP memory, otherwise known as the global memory, is available to a user during the entire duration of a terminal session. Its contents are retained across transaction boundaries as well as external and internal sessions. The contents of the ABAP/4 memory are retained only during the lifetime of an external session. You can retain or pass data across internal sessions.
3. The SET PARAMETER and GET PARAMETER statements allow you to write to, or read from, the SAP memory. The EXPORT TO MEMORY and IMPORT FROM MEMORY statements allow you to write data to, or read data from, the ABAP memory.
32. Explain Check Table and Value Table?
Check table works at table level and value table works at domain level.
Check table is nothing but master table that u will create with valid set of values.
Value table it provides the list of values and it will automatically proposed as a check table while creating foreign key relationship
33. How many types of Standard Internal Tables?
- STANDARD TABLE:
The key is, by default, set to NON-UNIQUE. You may not use the UNIQUE addition.
- SORTED TABLE:
Unlike standard tables, sorted table have no default setting for the uniqueness attribute. If you do not specify either UNIQUE or NON-UNIQUE, the system defines a generic table type, where uniqueness is irrelevant. You can use generic types to specify the type of generic subroutine parameters.
- HASHED TABLE:
Hashed tables have no default setting. You must use the UNIQUE addition with hashed tables. You may not use NON-UNIQUE.
34. What is Refresh in Internal Table?
'Refresh' is the keyword which clears the contents of an internal table body.
35. What is the Difference between Collect and Sum?
COLLECT allows you to create unique or summarized datasets. The system first tries to find a table entry corresponding to the table key. The key values are taken either from the header line of the internal table itab, or from the explicitly-specified work area. If the system finds an entry, the numeric fields that are not part of the table key (see ABAP number types) are added to the sum total of the existing entries. If it does not find an entry, the system creates a new entry instead. The way in which the system finds the entries depends on the type of the internal table:
- STANDARD TABLE:
The system creates a temporary hash administration for the table to find the entries. This means that the runtime required to find them does not depend on the number of table entries. The administration is temporary, since it is invalidated by operations like DELETE, INSERT, MODIFY, SORT). A subsequent COLLECT is then no longer independent of the table size, because the system has to use a linear search to find entries. For this reason, you should only use COLLECT to fill standard tables.
- SORTED TABLE:
The system uses a binary search to find the entries. There is a logarithmic relationship between the number of table entries and the search time.
36. What are the ways of creating Tables?
There are two ways to create table
1) top-down approach
2) bottom-up approach
37. What are Function Modules?
Function modules is a external subroutine. We can call it to outside the program. It is a mini program. It is used for reduces the coding, easy to find error.
Function modules is like a small program (is not a subroutine because sub-routines are not standalone objects-i.e we cannot execute them alone) which are similar to 'functions' in C.
We can pass the variable and get the return values even with out knowing what is happening in its code.
They are standalone programs-i.e. we can debug and execute them alone unlike subroutines and macros and includes.
38. What is CAT?
"CAT" Computer Aided Test Tool: Used to create test cases for application testing purposes.
39. What is LDB?
Logical Database is an ABAP program which retrieves data from various tables Which are interrelated and provides a read only view of the data.
40. What are the EVENTS in Report Program? What are EVENTS In Interactive Report and Explain?
Classical Report Events are
LOAD OF PROGRAM.INITIALIZATION.
Interactive events are
TOP-OF-PAGE DURING LINE-SELECTION.
AT LINE-SELECTION: Allows the user to interact with the lists.
AT USER-COMMAND: Used for handling Push buttons.
SET PF-STATUS: Provides User Interface.
41. What are the various techniques of BDC?
Direct input method
42. What is SQL Trace?
SQL Tracer is a tool used to measure the performance of ABAP program.
43. What is LUW?
It is a span of time during which database records are updated either commit or rollback.
44. Have you worked with reading and writing data on to files?
YES, open dataset
45. Have you created tables in SAP? What are client dependent and independent tables? How do you create independent tables?
Tables which are having MANDT field is called as client dependent tables. Tables which are not having MANDT field is called as client dependent tables.
46. Have you used SM30 and SM31 transactions?
SM30 is used to view the ' Call Up View Maintenance ' and SM31 is to view the ' Table maintenance ' with
47. How many dictionary objects are there and list all
Available Dictionary Objects are Domains, Views, Match Codes, Lock Objects, Structures, Data Elements, and Internal Types.
48. What is the difference between transparent and non transparent database tables?
Transparent tables have 1 - 1 cardinality b/w Data Dictionary and Database, and non transparent (Cluster and Pooled) tables have Many - 1 cardinality.
Transparent table can access with using Open & Native SQL statements where as nontransparent only Open SQL.
Transparent tables can store Table relevant data and non transparent tables can store system data/ application data based on the transparent tables
49. What is meant by BDC? How many methods of BDC are there?
BDC-> BATCH DATA COMMUNICATION.
METHODS OF BDC-> Direct Input method, Batch Input Session method, Call transaction method.
50. What is the difference between table controls and step loops in dialog programming?
1. Function modules use a special screen to define the parameters where as subroutines use the same ABAP/4 editor to define its parameters.
2. Tables work area can be commonly shared by calling program and subroutine where as function modules do not share commonly.
3. Calling function module syntax (Call function.) is different from calling subroutine syntax (perform….).
4. With raise statement user can exit from a function module where as exit is used in subroutines.
51. What is ALE, IDOC , EDI , RFC. Explain briefly.
ALE: application linking enabling
IDOC: intermediatary documents
EDI: electronic data interchange
RFC: remote function call
52. What is a binary search?
Binary Search is used in internal table for searching the records. its means record searched one by one from top & bottom both side. So, it’s a easy and fast way to find the record. bt pointer searching is better.
53 Types of User Exits, what kind of work is done on these exits?
File Exit, Menu Exit, Function Exit.
54. How will you find out where the user exits are available?
CMOD: This transaction allows you to create a PROJECT by identifying its ENHANCEMENT(S). After determining all of the ENHANCEMENTS that are part of the PROJECT, you will have to activate the PROJECT. You will still need to code your user-exit; therefore, you may want to wait until this step is completed before activating the PROJECT.
§SMOD: This transaction allows you to create an ENHANCEMENT, which you will include in a PROJECT, by identifying its COMPONENT(S). In the case where SAP has already created an ENHANCEMENT for its pre-defined user-exits, you will not need to use transaction SMOD; instead, you should just use transaction CMOD.
55. Have you created any transactions?
Yes, we can use TC SE93 for creating our own transaction code.
56. Difference between Table-Controls and Step-loops?
Table controls are modified / improved versions of step loops. In controls we can do,
Scrolling in a particular field,
Resize the table,
Can save the settings for future use,
Can make selective columns editable,....etc
These things are not possible with step loops.
Step loops are controlled by loop-endloop statements.
57. Import and Export
ABAP memory is a memory area that all ABAP programs within the same internal session can access using the EXPORT and IMPORT statements. Data within this area remains intact during a whole sequence of program calls. To pass data to a program which you are calling, the data needs to be placed in ABAP memory before the call is made. The internal session of the called program then replaces that of the calling program. The program called can then read from the ABAP memory. If control is then returned to the program which made the initial call, the same process operates in reverse.
58. How many interactive reports did you write?
In an Interactive Report, user can define maximum 20 secondary lists.
59. What is an “Unpack command”?
UNPACK field1TO field2 .Unpacks the packed field field1 and places it in the field field2 with leading zeros. If field2 is too short, it is truncated on the left.