ABAP SAP Scripts Interview Questions
6/15/2011 No Comment
What purpose has an ABAP application in SAP Script?
The purpose of an ABAP application can include multiple parts like:
a) It makes the definition of the processing logic of the Layout Set, or so to speak-what order the elements of text have and when are they used again.
b) It takes the data from the R/3 program that is found in the database.
c) It selects a Layout Set to print.
d) Chooses printer, fax or monitor as the output device.
e) It makes print configurations regarding the counting of pages that will be printed.
What is the correct syntax used for a box command?
The syntax looks like this one: BOX XPOS 2MM WIDTH 0 CM HEIGHT ‘9.5’ CM FRAME 10 TW.
How do we define variables?
How can we describe symbols more detailed?
The values that are entered in the time of print formatting are stored in symbols and these symbols can be found under names between”&” and they are not case sensitive.
System symbols are: DATE, DAY, NAME_OF_DAY, MONTH, YEAR, TIME, HOURS, MINUTES, SECONDS, PAGE, NEXTPAGE, DEVICE, SPACE, ULINE, VLINE. Standard symbols are the ones from table TTDG and are defined by the user. To show them or modify them we can use the transaction SM30. An example of standard symbol: &MFG&. The standard text is a normal text that can be found in one or multiple forms and they can be written , modified or shown with the aid of the transaction SO10. For text classification we have text ID. For putting standard texts in forms we can do this with the command INCLUDE like the following: INCLUDEZ_BC460_EX4_HF OBJECTTEXT ID SDVD. We can use the PARAGRAPH parameter to format standard texts, in the next example we will see how we can center the text:
INCLUDEZ_BC460_EX4_HF OBJECTTEXT ID SDVD LANGUAGE EN PARAGRAPH C.
Text id: SDVD(TEXT id from SO10)
Paragraph: C (Centered0.
Program symbols are used for database content. For tables: kna1, in forms: &KNA1-NAME1&, for formatting: &SYMBOL& (it means there is no formatting), &SYMBOL(5)&Length(the data and length), &SYMBOL(Z)&Suppress leading zeros, &SYMBOL+4&Offset(the start of the output), &SYMBOL(I)&Suppress initial value, &SYMBOL(C)&Compress blank spaces(one space from the compression of consecutive spaces), &SYMBOL(S)&Operators are suppressed, &SYMBOL(R)&Right align output, &SYMBOL(8.2)&Decimal format(length), &SYMBOL(*)&Dictionary length(the ABAP dictionary), &’text1’SYMBOL’text2’&Text entered prior to and after the symbol.
Can we give a detailed description on the Control commands?
For the changing of text output we use control commands./: is the format key that can be used in the format column, there is the intensity (grey scale) in percents, the frame thickness is given by frame parameters with zero as the initial value. Every parameter such as width and height, xpos and ypos or frame will have a measurement unit like: CH-character, TW-twip, IN-inch, PT-point, MM-millimeter, LN-line, CM-centimeter; as an example we have: BOX XPOS ’10.14’ MM YPOS ‘5.79’ MM HEIGHT ‘9’ MMWIDTH ‘14’ MM INTENSITY 8 FRAME 0 TW. This is making 2 lines and 2 rectangles for building a 3 column table and a highlighting heading section.
POSITION and SIZE are commands used for configuring the initial box parameters, a very good thing when we have many boxes with equal parameters. With POSITION WINDOW we can configure the position in relation to the window (to the left or to the right), after that we can use POSITION for setting the coordinates related to the window start. “+” and “-“ can be used for position configuration in ORIGIN.
The Styles are utilized in forms for setting paragraphs or formats of characters and for this we have multiple standard Styles in SAP; we can also define personal styles. For the creation, finding and keeping of styles there is the transaction SE72. With the aid of the Format menu and then Style we will give the text a style and for non permanent modifications to the style we will use /: as a command.
How do we import or use graphics in Sap Script?
For importing graphics in SAP there is the transaction SE78. We may include using Edit, Graphic, Create in the form painter or we can use the statement INCLUDE, case in which we will use the window script editor-Include, Graphic like in this example (with a bitmap):
/:BITMAP MYLOGO OBJECT GRAPHIC ID BMAP TYPE BMON.
How are the modifications made?
Changes to the normal SAP program have to be made only in the case when this is compulsory. When we require supplementary data , we should use the statement PERFORM and we don’t have to modify the print program. He print program modification can take place due to reasons like these: modifications in structure or the requirement for fresh text elements. The print program the will print supplementary forms will be crucial to deciding what are the print programs and forms that we will use. They exist in the TNAPR table and they are specific for a particular output type; the programs used for output are: view V_TNAPR for entry modification from transaction SE30, for importing or exporting a SAP Script form from a PC file we will use RSTXSCRP, for getting the print application name we will use SD or the TNAPR table (for SD documents).
How can we define and enter a standard text?
The default text type that can be implemented in multiple forms is called a standard text. With the aid of the transaction SO10 we can make, modify or display a standard text. For classifying the texts we will use text ID. With the command INCLUDE we can introduce a standard texts in forms like in this example: /:INCLUDEZ_BC460_EX4_HF OBJECT TEXT ID SDVD. With the aid of the parameter PARAGRAPH we can format standard texts and for centering texts we can see the example: /:INCLUDEZ_BC460_EX4_HF OBJECT TEXT ID SVD LANGUAGE EN PARAGRAPH C. For address format we can use the command ADRESS-ENDADRESS which is determined by the country parameter from the postal standards that the country of the recipient has. Example:
ADDRESS DELIVERY PARAGRAPH AD
STREET & KNA1-STRAS&
For pagebreak avoiding in paragraphs :
The lines of text that are to be defended against pagebreaks will be met between the command IF and the command ENDIF, as in every ABAP program like this:
/:ENDIF. An exact expression would be: /: &SPFLI-CITYTO&=”BERLIN” …text… /:ENDIF.
What separates a Window from a Page Window?
The Page Window is when we declare the parameters of a window that was declared before and the document look (width, height and the margins –left and right). Window is when we talk about the type window, about the initial paragraph or the text components (SAP Scripts) that have to be included. The windows are those places stated from the start in the layout set , the text blocks that we find on a page are the windows.
How do we load graphics like logos in SAP Script?
We can load graphics like files with the .tif extension in SAP Script in standard text with the aid of RSTXLDMC.
Which are the most used programs from SAP Script?
For the transformation of the page format we have RSTXFCON, for downloading and uploading the layout sets we have RSTXSCRP, for the debugging of SAP Script we have RSTXDBUG, for moving script files from system to system we can use RSTXSCRP, to modify development classes of different objects we will use RSWBO052, for table contents comparison between clients we have to use RSTBSERV.
What are the steps and other details of debugging?
We will use Tools then Word Processing then Layout Set and we will write the layout name the we go to Utilities and Activate Debugger. It doesn’t matter which layout set we choose we choose the debugger. The layout set will call the debugger. If we try to copy a form from client to client and we try to also modify the copied form we will have these error messages:
a) Form not found. The solving of this problem is trying to copy again but with a language specification.
b) Text file is inconsistent. From SE38 we have to run “RSTXCHKO”, the form name will be required and checking all the checkboxes (and running the program) fixes the problem.
How can we copy a table from client to client?
We can do this with the aid of RSCLTCOP.
What is the way for making a script layout backup for future loading from the HDD?
This can be done with the EXPORT MODE, a script with a similar name to the initial script will be made, if this is already made,it receives an error.
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